1. Affordable

The most obvious benefit is that it is free and so are its applications. It saves me money as upgrading or installing applications will not cost me a dime unlike Windows which I have to buy each and every component, application and even some upgrades. This also means that I can freely share the OS among friends without it being illegal. The Linux system is more secure than Windows meaning that it is less prone to virus infections. This means that means that I do not incur frequent expenditures on anti-viruses which further make it affordable.


2. Security and Stability

There few occasions of system crashes with a Linux OS because the core operating systems is separate from the GUI that hosts the applications. In windows the core system and the applications are integrated such that when an application crashes it can lead to the crash of the whole operating system. For Linux however, the incomplete integration means that an application crashes without affecting the OS.


Linux is an extremely stable system which offers the benefit of less rebooting. Application crashes do not affect the whole system and one just needs to restart the specific application unlike Windows which requires rebooting. Linux has the advantage of being compatible with various file systems such that it can open over a 100 types of files. Windows on the other hand can only read its own file systems. This makes Linux more versatile especially if since I frequently extract data from a hard drive formatted on a different computer.

Linux offers more security for my data than Windows. Being an Open Source program any attempt to access data is easily detected and disabled.  With Windows the government and also other spies can easily access your data.


3. Expansive support

Linux has three commercial support providers which are Red Hat, Novell and Canonical. These provide 24/7 support for critical applications and business services. This plus the worldwide community support it being an open source program offers me  the best experience as the forums are upbeat and very resourceful.

Continue Reading…

linux commands

As you know that, Linux is a robust operating system. Therefore, it works deeply on the hardware more. Rather, it has less effect on the software front. Therefore, if you put the wrong commands on Linux platform, then your computer hardware will damage or even, it will push the hardware into the eternal sleep as well. Therefore, you should make yourself more careful for using the wrong commands on Linux platform. Actually, Linux is a kind of operating system, which will not harm any hardware without any reason.

However, if Linux gets the wrong commands, then it will immediately strike back with a great thud on the hardware and instantly destroy the whole hardware system. One interesting point to tell you that if you are curious about for testing these wrong commands on Linux system seriously, then you can use the virtual machine, which will never do any harm to your computer hardware as well. However, never try to test these dangerous commands in any physical machines also.

Delete everything:

The command rm -rf / is responsible for the deletion of every files in the system. Moreover, this command is dangerous when you have a bunch of important files in your computer, then it will work venomously to wipe out all the files from your machines when you put this command to work. Eventually, the deleted files will not be recoverable at any cost. Once, it is done, then you will lose it forever and there will be no chance for any recovery even with the help of the data recovery software as well. The command part rm means removing the following files or folders whereas the command segment -rf means to remove all the files and folders without prompting you as well.

Fork bomb:

The command : (){ : |: & };: is a kind of Linux command which will destroy the CPU time and memory as well. It is very much dangerous for any computer machine. The reason is that it works like a replication way which means that your files in Linux will be duplicates in many times until CPU time and memory freezes as well. The main effect of this command will freeze your computer. Actually, it is a kind of denial-of service attack. One thing, you should not use this command for fun in any Linux machine. As it will destroy computer memory and hard disk heavily as well. When the CPU time and memory lost due to this command, then you will find that some programs are also mal-functioning due to it as well.

Formatting the hard disk:

It is a kind of command, which will wipe out your wholehearted disk space without leaving any trace of file or folder as well. Actually, the command mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1 which will delete your computer hard disk fully. Therefore, there will be no chance for having any file trace as well. Moreover, you can expect the total whitewash in your Linux machine.

Actually, you can expect a different kind of formatting hard disk. The reason is that it will bring the hard disk in a factory-formatted disk. Therefore, you will get the deeper cleaning of your hard disk in such a way that as if you buy the new hard disk from the local market as well. However, you should never think that you would use this command for formatting your hard disk. The reason is that you should not try it in your Linux machine alone and you stay away from it.

Writing directly into the hard disk:

The command command > /dev/sda is very much dangerous for any Linux machine. The reason is that when this command will work on the Linux platform, then it will write directly into hard disk and it will damage the file system of the operating system as well. Moreover, you have to understand well before it strikes in your machine. Even, you will see that this command will make your directory structure more vulnerable as well.

Moreover, the default setting of the hard disk sector binding will get dislodge. Therefore, you will get the inconsistent data result from your Linux machine. Actually, after putting the command in Linux, you will have a little time to feel what is going to happen next. Therefore, the damage processing will be happen in the quick succession before you understand it fully.

Therefore, the list of the deadly commands will never give you a peaceful feeling when you consciously or unconsciously put it in your Linux machine as well. Even, if you commit the mistake for having these deadly commands work on your Linux machine, then you have to reinstall the new operating system in your machine as well.


About The Author: Lina is a writer blogger. She loves writing, travelling and reading books. She contributes to luxury home interiors


Today, the Debian Team has announced the first update of the latest stable distribution Debian 7 Wheezy. In this update we can find some security corrections and few more adjustments for other big problems.  Security advisories were already published separately and are referenced where available.

This update does not constitute a new version of Debian 7 and only updates some of the packages included.  You don;t need to  throw away your 7 CDs or DVDs but only to update via an up-to-date Debian mirror after an installation, to cause any out of date packages to be updated.

Those who frequently install updates from security.debian.org won’t have to update many packages and most updates from security.debian.org are included in this update.

New installation media and CD and DVD images containing updated packages will be available soon at the regular locations.

Upgrading to this revision online is usually done by pointing the aptitude (or apt) package tool (see the sources.list(5) manual page) to one of Debian’s many FTP or HTTP mirrors. A comprehensive list of mirrors is available at: http://www.debian.org/mirror/list

You can find more from the official Debian Announcement: http://www.debian.org/News/2013/20130615 Continue Reading…

Debian Work Environment

Valic —  June 10, 2013 — Leave a comment

You found out in a previous article that Midnight Commander allows you to do almost everything under Debian, but it is very important for you to become familiar with the work environment and to learn how to use the command line tools from the shell prompt. You are able to select your login shell using chsh. The list of shell programs may include: bash, tcsh, dash, zsh, pdksh, csh, sash, ksh, rc or posh. In this article we will use bash as the interactive shell. The bash behaviour can be customized from “~/.bashrc“. Under Debian work environment there are some key strokes, special ones, which have a special meaning, as you can see in the below list:

  • Ctrl-U will erase the line before cursor
  • Ctrl-H is used to erase one character before cursor
  • Ctrl-D will terminate exit shell
  • Ctrl-C used to terminate a running program
  • Ctrl-Z stops the program temporarily
  • Ctrl-S used for halt output to screen
  • Ctrl-Q will reactivate the output to screen

Mouse can be also used, and these operations are made using a 3 button mouse. Button functions are not different that a standard one. Please note that in order to use a mouse on a Linux console you must have gpm(8) as a daemon running. An enhanced pager, less(1), exists on this work environment. If you have not defined yet a default text editor under your Debian operating system, you will have to install one. VIM is recommended by most users. The default editor is located at ‘/usr/bin/editor‘ and can be properly invoked by other applications. Before installing one editor, please check what values you have for environment variables “$VISUAL” or “$EDITOR” and see what editor are you currently using.

If you need a mode to record the activities you make while using the shell prompt, in order not to lose forever what you wrote there or if you need to do a review of them sometime in the future (especially for those of you who are doing administrative tasks), this is the way to do it: type ‘script‘ in command line, make your commands, press ‘Ctrl + D’ to exit the script and then write ‘vim typescript’ which will show you the entire script history.

Now you are at that moment when you will have to learn some basic Debian commands in the editor. Execute the below command while logged in with a non privileged user:

  • pwd is used to display the name of the working directory
  • whoami will display the current username
  • id displays the current user identity
  • file <x> will display a type of file for the file “<x >”
  • ls lists the content of a directory
  • ls -a lists the contents of a directory but including all files and directories
  • mkdir x – make a new directory x
  • rmdir x – removes a directory x
  • top will display the current process information using full screen mode Continue Reading…
Commander may sound familiar for you. GNU Midnight Commander, or MC, is a clone from Norton Commander and a free cross platform file manager licensed under the terms of the GNU License. It has a text user interface, being a console application. It includes 2 panels meant to display the system of files. You can move to files using arrow keys, you are able to select one file using the Insert key and some Function keys are for operations like editing, renaming or copying files. Some advanced versions of Midnight Commander have support for mouse.

If you didn’t knew, the term of Midnight Commander comes from a Swiss army knife. It is excellent for a newbie in Debian because it gives you a menu driven console experience which you will find very easy to learn, especially standard Debian commands. If you want to install the Midnight Commander package, called ‘mc’, you will have to run the command ‘ apt-get install mc‘.

If you need to explore the Debian file system the command is mc. Now you have it there, here are some cool locations you can explore using direction keys and Enter key:

  • “/etc” and subdirectories
  • /usr/share/doc” and subdirectories
  • /var/log” and subdirectories
  • /bin” and “/sbin

The default package comes without any customizations. If you need some changes, these can be made modifying the “~/.bashrc” which has to include a script provided in the package. You can start the MC using the command ‘mc’. Your effort will be minimal since all operations are made using the included menu. F1 is the best way to start, in order to see the help screen and check some useful stuff there. If encoding characters are an issue for you, just including an ‘-a’ to your command in MC will make these problems disappear.

File manager in Midnight Commander

It includes two panels which lists the files. Many users set the right panel to display information regarding permissions, for example, which you may find it to be useful sometimes. Here are some keystrokes very important when you use the MC under Debian:

  • F1 opens the help menu
  • F3 displays the internal file viewer
  • F4 opens an internal editor
  • F9 to activate pull down menu
  • F10 will exit from Midnight Commander
  • Tab helps you move between two windows
  • Insert or Ctrl-T is used to mark the file for a multiple-file operation such as copy or rename
  • Del is used to delete the file (set MC to safe delete mode)
  • Cursor keys -  move through file system

Also, if you want to know some tricks for command line, here are some of them – ‘cd’ command will change the directory, ‘Ctrl + Enter’ will copy a file name to the command line, shell file name expansion choices can be seen using ‘Alt + Tab’, ‘Esc + 1′ has the effect of F1 and pressing ‘Esc’ before pressing another key is like pressing Alt + that key.

This is just a starter article, more to come soon. Please use the above information along with Debian documentation and Midnight Commander will become easier for you. Continue Reading…

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