These are some other commands that you will find very useful:





Clear the screen. This command clears  your  screen if this is possible.


Display text on the screen. Mostly useful when writing shell scripts.


More is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time.


An improved replacement for the more command. Allows you to scroll backwards as well as forwards.


Search for a pattern in a file or program output.B y default, grep prints the matching lines.


Print a file or program output. lpr uses a spooling daemon to print the named files when facilities become available.


Sort a file or program output.  Writes sorted files concatenated.


su – Switch User is the command that allows you to switch to another user account.

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. Here, Hyper basically refers to non-linear characteristic. It does not follow any particular segment for computer programming. It means a website page can be opened and viewed from anywhere, anytime, and through any type of computing medium. Text refers to the input format, here basically English alphabet and numerical. Markup is simply the overall writing or coding structure. language is the mode in which the entire coding is written.

HTML is used for developing webpages. HTML is also sometimes used in creating document pages. But these pages cannot be read normally like those being created via word processors. HTML pages can be viewed only through a browser that support this particular language. In this world, there are not a single web browser present that does not support HTML based pages. It is through the help of web browsers that HTML coded articles can be read. However, there are special software tools also available for this purpose. HTML code read, CSS file reader, etc. are available in plenty.

One thing to keep in mind: HTML codes are written using a word processors like MS-Word, Notepad, or even Open Office. Once the code is written, save it in one of the following formats: TEXT or ASCII TEXT DOS. For beginners who have just started writing HTML, they often have a tendency to save every single page in a separate folder. But, this is a process that is not required at all. Simply save the pages in a single folder of the hard drive. A very important suggestion to give and follow: when saving these files, always click the “Save As” tab. This will ensure that the files are not being saved to its default format. If the normal “Save” tab is clicked, then the file will get saved in its default format. But that is not required. The file should be saved in TEXT or ASCII TEXT DOS format only. Always remember, when saving a file in word processor in formats other than the above two mentioned ones, then lot of other settings also gets saved like margin setting, word fonts, etc. But these settings are not required at all. Only the text is needed. This can be obtained only if the word file is saved in TEXT or ASCII TEXT DOS format. Continue Reading…

If you are getting “too many open files” error this  is how to fix it.

To change the file descriptor setting you need to add the line fs.file-max=50000 to the kernel parameters file /etc/sysctl.conf

echo "fs.file-max = 500000” >> /etc/sysctl.conf


Open /etc/sysctl.conf file with any editor and add the fs.file-max=50000  line to the file.

To apply all changes run the following command:

sysctl -p

The final step is to change the ulimit setting hard and soft limits. Continue Reading…

GDebi is a simple tool that can help you to install local .deb packages with automatic dependency resolution.  it automatically downloads and installs the required packages.

GDebi have also a  graphical user interface.

Step1. Install GDebi on Debian:

apt-get install gdebi

Step2. Use GDebi in command line:

gdebi package_name_to_install.deb

GDebi will automatically find and install all dependencies.

Example: [email protected]:/# gdebi webmin_1.610_all.deb
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Building data structures... Done
Building data structures... Done Continue Reading...

cron-apt is a flexible program that can manage automating apt via cron.

Step1. Install cron-apt in Debian

apt-get install cron-apt

Step2. Configure it:

The configuration file is located in /etc/cron-apt/ directory.
For a basic configuration I have everything set to default except for two lines in /etc/cron-apt/config file

MAILTO="[email protected]"

You  can also modify when the cron-apt  runs in the /etc/cron.d/cron-apt file.


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